Benjamin Banneker: Overcoming Circumstances and Advocating for Equality

Benjamin Banneker was an African American mathematician, astronomer, and inventor born on November 9, 1731, in Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland. Despite being born in a time when slavery was rampant, Banneker defied the odds by becoming an accomplished inventor and scientist. His achievements and legacy exemplify the principles of equality and circumstance not limiting success.

Growing up in a family of former slaves, Banneker had limited access to education. However, he was able to teach himself mathematics, astronomy, and surveying. In 1789, Banneker wrote a letter to Thomas Jefferson, who was then Secretary of State, in which he criticized the institution of slavery and advocated for racial equality. In the letter, he wrote:

“I am fully sensible of the greatness of that freedom which I take with you on the present occasion; a liberty which seemed to me scarcely allowable, when I reflected on that distinguished and dignified station in which you stand, and the almost general prejudice and prepossession which is so prevalent in the world against those of my complexion.”

Banneker’s letter was remarkable, given the times. It is an example of his advocacy for equality and justice for all, regardless of race or social status.

In addition to his advocacy for equality, Banneker was a brilliant mathematician and inventor. He is best known for his work on the first Almanac published in the United States by an African American, entitled The Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac and Ephemeris, for the Year of Our Lord, 1792. The Almanac contained detailed astronomical and meteorological information, as well as tables for calculating tides and eclipses. Banneker’s work was highly regarded by his contemporaries, including Thomas Jefferson, who described him as “a remarkable man.”

Banneker’s achievements serve as an inspiration to many, especially those who have been historically marginalized due to their race, gender, or social status. His story demonstrates that circumstances do not have to limit one’s success. As he wrote in his letter to Thomas Jefferson:

“I hope it will not be esteemed presumption, if I ask, Whether a body of people, legally assembled for the purpose, may not be considered as possessing a power equal to that of the great and mighty nation of Great Britain?”

Banneker’s words echo the idea that everyone is capable of achieving greatness, regardless of their circumstances.

In conclusion, Benjamin Banneker was a remarkable figure in American history who overcame the challenges of his time to become an accomplished scientist, inventor, and advocate for equality. His story serves as an inspiration to us all, as we strive for a world where everyone has equal opportunities to succeed. As Banneker himself said, “The colour of the skin is in no way connected with strength of the mind or intellectual powers.”

Learn more about Benjamin Banneker as a family by signing up for our free United We Pledge Academy courses here. Each lesson is formatted for easy 15 minute family lessons.


Banneker, Benjamin. “Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson, August 19, 1791.” National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed September 7, 2021.

Benjamin Banneker: Astronomer, Mathematician, and Inventor. Accessed September 7, 2021.

Johnson, Harriet. “Benjamin Banneker.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., June 25, 2021.